The 1954 polio vaccine trial remains the largest ever. Read more
Although various global public health successes can be attributed to vaccinations, ethical debates have long surrounded questions of mandates, consent, access disparities, and research and testing of vaccines.
Two vaccines for STDs are currently in use. Ongoing efforts to develop vaccines for herpes simplex and HIV may prove successful in the future.
Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines).
The human immune system is essential for our survival in a world full of potentially dangerous microbes.