The adult polysaccharide vaccine includes 23 serotypes. Read more.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can cause a variety of medical conditions. Many HPVs are sexually transmitted, and some can lead to cancer of the cervix, anus, and throat. Two HPV vaccines are licensed in the United States, one protecting against four strains of HPV, and the other protecting against two. HPV vaccination is recommended in the United States for adolescents.
Two vaccines for STDs are currently in use. Ongoing efforts to develop vaccines for herpes simplex and HIV may prove successful in the future.
Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines).
The human immune system is essential for our survival in a world full of potentially dangerous microbes.