Placeholder Image: 

The History of Vaccines explores the role of immunization in the human experience and examines its continuing contributions to public health

Vaccine Side Effects and Adverse Events

A vaccine is a medical intervention, and as with any medical intervention, may have side effects. This article discusses side effects and adverse events related to vaccination.

Ethical Issues and Vaccines

Although various global public health successes can be attributed to vaccinations, ethical debates have long surrounded questions of mandates, consent, access disparities, and research and testing of vaccines.

Different Types of Vaccines

Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines).

The Human Immune System and Infectious Disease

The human immune system is essential for our survival in a world full of potentially dangerous microbes.

Female Aedes aegypti feeding
Female Aedes aegypti, carrier of yellow fever, feeding
When and where did the last known case of wild variola minor smallpox take place?
In 1975, in Bangladesh
In 1977, in Somalia
In 1978, in Great Britain
In 1949, in the United States

The last known case occurred in Somalia in 1977. Read more